The North Kingdom of the Dunedain, Arnor was founded in the year 3320
of the Second Age, after the Downfall of Numenor. Its founder was Elendil,
who was the High King of both Arnor and Gondor (founded by his two sons,
Isildur and Anarion). The tenth King of Arnor, Earendur, split the realm
between his three sons, so it was later called Arthedain, Cardolan,
and Rhudaur. In Cardolan and Rhudaur, the Dunedain soon dwindled enough
that by 1350 of the Third Age, it was overtly allied with Angmar, the
realm of the Witch-King. After the destruction of Angmar, the line of
Arnor's Kings never failed, though Arnor was ruined, and the Kings were
called Chieftains instead. It was from this line that the Kings of Gondor
eventually came from too, with the end of the Third Age and Aragorn's
The first capital of Arnor, Annuminas, was deserted when the capital
city removed to Fornost. Annuminas was rebuilt during the reign of King
Elessar during the Fourth Age.
The realm of the Witch-king, later discovered to be the chief of the
Nazgul. It lasted for approximately 700 years.
Melkor's stronghold, built after he destroyed the two lamps it was built
under the Ered Engryn. Though it was partially destroyed when the Valar
captured Melkor, it was not completely cleaned out and Balrogs and others
still hid there during his captivity. After he escaped from Valinor,
Melkor rebuilt it and it was never again taken until the Great Battle
that ended the First Age of the Sun. Angband was, of course, destroyed
when the most part of Beleriand sank beneath the ocean.
The Blessed Realm, and the home of the Valar after Melkor destroyed
Almaren. When Eru changed the shape of the World during the Downfall
of Numenor, Aman was removed from the circles of the World, in such
a way that only the ships of the Elves, could return by the Straight
Road. Aman had many names of which the most common were, The Blessed
Realm and the Undying Lands.
Before the downfall of Numenor, Arda was flat, encircled by a great
sea. However when Eru changed the shape of the World and destroyed Numenor,
the world was made round, like it is today.
A village in the Bree-land where Hobbits and Men live together. Archet
is located to the north of the Chetwood.
Amon Anwar (The Hill of Awe):
The hill within the Firien Wood, later used as a beacon in , the line
of beacons between Gondor and Rohan. Prior to the coming of Cirion,
Amon Anwar was the site of the tomb of Elendil. Isildur set it there
as being the center of the Realm of Gondor as it was at that time. Being
a holy place it was chosen for the oath of Cirion and Eorl. After that
time, Elendil's tomb was removed to the Hallows in Minas Anor, seeing
as the hill was no longer the center of the realm, but on it's border.
After that the hill became one of a line of beacons, and being on the
border, its upkeep was by both men of Gondor and of Rohan, though later
the upkeep fell to Rohan.
The caves within Helms Deep, they are especially magnificent. After
the War of the Ring, they became the site of one of the Dwarf-Kingdoms,
with Gimli as the Lord. The name means Glittering Caves.
At the crossing of the North Road and the East Road, Bree is one of
four villages where the Big Folk and the Little Folk live in harmony.
All of the villages are in the Bree-land: Archet, Combe, Bree and Staddle.
The Bree-land was the nearest location settled by Men to the Shire.
The Bree-land was settled by Men first before the founding of Arnor.
Hobbits entered later, around 1300 of the Third Age.
The Barrow-Downs were green downs within which there were barrows predating
the arrival of the Dunedain. In the year 1409, the remaining Dunedain
of Cardolan took refuge in the Barrow-downs during the wars with Angmar.
Around 1636 of the Third Age, the Barrow-Downs were inhabited by the
Barrow-Wights. After this the Barrow-Downs became a place of great terror.
In Sindarin the Barrow-Downs were called Tyrn Gorthad.
The tower and dungeons of Sauron in Mordor. Baradur was rebuilt with
the power of the One Ring after the year 1000 of the Second Age. When
Sauron was vanquished by the Last Alliance, Barad-dur was destroyed,
though the foundations remained as the One Ring was intact. It was rebuilt
by Sauron and finally destroyed in the year 3019 with the destruction
of the One Ring.
The northwestern portion of Middle-Earth throughout the Ages of the
Stars and the First Age of the Sun, Beleriand was made up of several
regions including Hithlum, Doriath, and Nevrast. In the north of Beleriand,
was Uttumno and Thangorodrim where lived Morgoth. The focus of The
Silmarillion, most probably written by Bilbo Baggins, was in Beleriand,
as were most of the battles and wars making up the struggle to regain
the Silmarils. Beleriand was destroyed and sank beneath the waves at
the end of the First Age of the Sun, during the struggle between the
Valar and Morgoth. The only parts of Beleriand to survive, apart from
some islands made up of mountaintops were Lindon and some parts of the
Blue Mountains, the Ered Luin.
An island fortress north of Minas Tirith, belonging to Gondor, Cair
Andros is shaped like a ship facing upstream. The name means Ship of
The chief city in Lothlorien.
The Spider Pass, near to Minas Morgul on the borders of Mordor. Cirith
Ungol was the route chosen by Frodo, on the advice of Gollum, to enter
Mordor. It was a high, narrow pass overlooked by a fortress at the top.
As an added safeguard, there lived Shelob, the greatest of the giant
spiders remaining in Middle-Earth. The route through Cirith Ungol, included
two very long stairways and a branching orc tunnel where Shelob lived.
A fortress and city of the realm of Angmar.
The Battle-plain. The Dagorlad was in front of the Black Gate and bordered
on at least one side by the Dead Marshes, which had been creeping over
the edges. At least two battles have been fought on the Dagorlad, before
the War of the Ring: that of the Last Alliance in the year 3434 of the
Second Age, and at least one battle with the Wainriders.
The Dead Marshes are to the north-west of the Dagorlad. They gained
this name after years of slow creeping over the edges of the graves
on the Dagorlad.
The Two Towers, book four, chapter two: The Passage of the Marshes,
The hobbits soon found that what had looked like one
vast fen was really an endless network of pools, and soft mires, and
winding half-strangled watercourses.
Somehow, the faces of the Dead, could be seen especially at night, an
Age later: (The Lord of the Rings, page 653)
They lie in all the pools, pale faces, deep
deep under the dark water. I saw them: grim faces and evil, and noble
faces and sad. Many faces proud and fair, and weeds in their silver
hair. But all foul, all rotting, all dead. A fell light is in them.
Nobody knows by what dark magic these faces are still visible.
City of Gondor and once a haven of the Elves, Dol Amroth is the main
city of the Belfalas region.
Originally built during the Dark Years, by the men who were to become
the "Dead Men of Dunharrow", Dunharrow was afterwards used as a stronghold
and refuge during times of war by both Gondor and later Rohan.
A town to the immediate south of the Lonely Mountain, Dale was ruined
by Smaug. After the death of Smaug and the Battle of the Five Armies,
Dale was eventually rebuilt under the kingship of Bard. In the time
of the War of the Ring, Dale's king was Brand, who fell soon before
the end of the Ring.
One of the few remaining places where the Druedain, survived at the
time of the War of the Ring, though they were hunted as beasts, though
King Theoden made a promise to one of the headmen, Ghan-buri-ghan, that
they would no longer do so.
The realm of Thingol in Beleriand, Doriath was one of the greatest of
the Elf-kingdoms. It was sacked by Dwarves after the death of Thingol.
After which Dior Eluchil, his grandson became king. Dior was slain by
the sons of Feanor and so ended the realm of Doriath. Within Doriath
was Mengroth, the underground palace.
The Ered Luin are the Blue Mountains. During the First Age, this mountain
range was the eastern boundary of Beleriand. At the end of the First
Age, they were split by the gulf of Lhun. There were at least two dwarf-cities
in the Blue Mountains during the First Age, and at least one partially
survived as it is said that Dwarves still passed through the Shire on
their way to their cities in the Blue Mountains.
The Ash Mountains on the northern border of Mordor.
The Mountains of Shadow on Mordor's western border. The only known pass
through this range is Cirith Ungol, the Spider Pass, also known as the
The capital city of Rohan. Edoras apparently had a dike, wall and thorny
fence surrounding it (The Lord of the Rings, pages 528-529):
"I see a white stream that comes down from the snows,"
he said. "Where it issues from the shadow of the vale a green hill rises
upon the east. A dike and mighty wall and thorny fence encircle it.
Within there rise the roofs of houses; and in the midst, set upon a
green terrace, there stands aloft a great hall of Men. And it seems
to my eyes that it is thatched with gold. The light of it shines far
over the land. golden, too, are the posts of its doors.
Often called Lake-Town, Esgaroth was built on posts driven into the
Long Lake. The original town was destroyed when Smaug fell upon it in
his death. It was later rebuilt somewhat to the north.
The Emyn Muil:
A region of fairly barren cliffs on each side of the Anduin River. At
the base of the cliffs were often bogs and fens, The Lord of the Rings,
We can't get down, and if we did get down,
we'd find all that green land a nasty bog, I'll warrant.
In earlier days the Emyn Muil were covered with trees, though
they were gnarled and stunted, though by the time of the War of the
Ring, few trees still lived. The Lord of the Rings pages 629-630:
Some way down they found a few gnarled and
stunted trees, the first they had seen for days: twisted birch for the
most part, with here and there a fir-tree. Many were dead and gaunt,
bitten to the core by the eastern winds. Once in milder days there must
have been a fair thicket in the ravine, but now, after some fifty yards,
the trees came to an end, though old broken stumps straggled on almost
to the clif's brink.
The Lonely Mountain. Erebor was first settled just after Moria was deserted,
and later attracted the attention of Smaug, who until the Quest to destroy
Smaug was successful in the year 2941 of the Third Age. After this Erebor
thrived and continued to grow. There is no record of what end it finally
came to, if any, Erebor may still be in existence.
During the Second Age of the Sun, Eregion, which was nigh to the West-Gate
of Moria, was settled by the Elven-Smiths. It was ruined and abandoned
in the year 1697 of the Second Age, during their war with Sauron.
The capital of Arnor after Annuminas, Fornost was once captured by the
forces of Angmar. Though retaken, it was abandoned as in that same year
came the end of the North Kingdom as such. After abandonment, Fornost
Erain was known as Deadmans Dike.
The eastern remnant of the forests covering Middle-Earth in the Elder
Days, Fangorn forest, and possibly the Old Forest, were the only remains
of the forests of the Elder Days. Fangorn Forest was certainly the only
one with the Shepherds of the Trees still surviving. Also called the
Entwood, in Rohan, because of the Ents, who were the Shepherds of the
Trees. Fangorn Forest was an obviously old forest, where there were
some places that the original darkness still had not been lifted according
The wood surrounding the Halfirien, which was also known as Amon Anwar,
the Hill of Awe.
The South Kingdom, Gondor was founded in the year 3320 of the Second
Age, by Elendil and his two sons ruled it until the War of the Last
Alliance, when Elendil and Anarion were killed. Then Isildur became
the High King of both kingdoms. The Kingship lasted until the year 2050
of the Third Age, when the last King died. After this the Stewards ruled
in the name of the King, until the year 3019, when Aragorn took back
the Kingship of both Arnor and Gondor.
Gondor had three main cities and several smaller ones. The main cities
Osgiliath (the capital until the year 1640)
A Fortress in Rohan, probably built by the Men of Gondor, the Hornburg
is a refuge in times of war. Untill the War of the Ring, the Hornburg
had never yet fallen to an enemy, and it did not even then, though it
was a close call, and only due to the Huorns and the Men of Erkenbrand.
I do not know if it ever fell after the War of the Ring, though I think
A town in the Shire, Hobbiton was the location of Bag End.
Another fortress in Rohan, built by the Numenoreans, Isengard was extremely
defendable, and the key to the defense of Rohan, as was discovered in
the time of Helm Hammerhand, much to their dismay. It was always part
of Gondor, even when Eorl was given the land surrounding it. Isengard
was given to Saruman in the year 2759 of the Third Age, by the Steward
Beren. Isengard was at least partially destroyed by the Ents in the
year 3018 of the Third Age. In the language of Rohan, Isengard was Angrenost.
Ithilien was once a beautiful area of Gondor, often called the Garden
of Gondor, though it was eventually abandoned after the taking of Minas
Ithil. Ithilien was located between Minas Ithil and the Anduin. Even
in the years of the War of the Ring, the hobbits could see the remaining
beauty of Ithilien, though it was no longer tended and had fallen into
ruin. After the War of the Ring, Ithilien was given to Faramir, by the
The home of Durin, the eldest of the Seven Fathers of the Dwarves, Khazad-dum
was the greatest of the Dwarven mansions, especially after the destruction
of Beleriand which partially destroyed Nogrod and Belegost. Many dwarves
fled from Nogrod and Belegost to Khazad-dum, swelling its population.
Khazad-dum was the only place where mithril could be found, but mithril
was also the cause of their destruction, as in mining for mithril, they
accidentally freed the Balrog. The Dwarves abandoned Khazad-dum in the
year 1981 of the Third Age. After the Dwarves left, Sauron sent orcs
to gather all the mithril, gold and jewels that could be found. The
Elves called Khazad-dum Moria, the Black Chasm afterwards. It was in
Moria that Gandalf fell fighting the Balrog.
There was a prophecy that one day the Dwarves would retake Moria, referred
to in the following:
The Peoples of Middle-Earth, page 278:
And the line of Dain prospered, and the wealth and
renown of the kingship was renewed, until there arose again for the
last time an heir of that House that bore the name of Durin, and he
returned to Moria; and there was light again in deep places, and the
ringing of hammers and the harping of harps, until the world grew old
and the Dwarves failed and the days of Durin's race were ended.
The Lord of the Rings, page 341:
So ended the attempt to retake Moria! It was valiant
but foolish. The time is not come yet.
Anor, the city of Anarion.The name translates to The Tower of the Setting
Sun. One of the three main cities of Gondor, Minas Anor was renamed
Minas Tirith, the Tower of Guard after Minas Ithil was taken by the
Nazgul. It became the capital city after Osgiliath had started to be
abandoned in the year 1640 of the Third Age.
The twin city to Minas Anor, Minas Ithil was the city of Isildur and
its name translates as The Tower of the Rising Moon, often just called
The Tower of the Moon. It was taken by the Nazgul in the year 2000 of
the Third Age and renamed, in Gondor, Minas Morgul, the Tower of Black
Magic. It was a terrible place until the fall of Sauron, and judged
by the King Elessar not fit to live near for long years after the War
of the Ring.
Mordor, translated as, the Black Land, was the realm of Sauron, and
where he forged the One Ring. This was Sauron's home from around the
year 1000 of the Second Age, to the year 3019 of the Third Age, when
Frodo destroyed the One Ring in Mount Doom.
The Moragai was the inner fence of Mordor, on the east. Lower than the
Ephel Duath, the Moragai was not entirely barren, with thorny bushes,
harsh grasses and biting flies.
A museum in the Shire, the Mathom House was located in Michel Delving.
Before Bilbo left the Shire, he had loaned his mithril coat to the Mathom
House to display.
The home of Elu Thingol in Beleriand, Mengroth was built underground,
like the stronghold of the Elves of Mirkwood. Mengroth was destroyed
in the sack of Doriath.
The Meneltarma was the mountain at the centre of Numenor, used as a
temple to Eru, left untouched by Men, Later, when Numenor sank beneath
The Wave, it was said the top of Meneltarma remained an Island, but
it was never found. Four times a year, in the appropriate times, the
King led a procession to the top. This continued until the times of
the King;s Men, when the hallow was neglected.
Mere of Dead Faces:
The Mere of Dead Faces in the Dead Marshes was a horrible place, especially
at night, which was when Frodo, Sam and Gollum passed through. The Lord
of the Rings, page 650:
On either side and in front wide fens and mires now
lay, stretching away southward and eastward into the dim half-light.
Mists curled and smoked from dark and noissome pools. The reek of them
hung stifling in the still air. Far away, now almost due south, the
mountain-walls of Mordor loomed, like a black bar of rugged clouds floating
above a dangerous fog-bound sea.
This description fits the entire Dead Marshes, but goes with the painting
on the right, which is of the Mere of Dead Faces. The Lord of the Rings,
When lights appeared Sam rubbed his
eyes: he thought his head was going queer. He first saw one with the
corner of his left eye, a wisp of pale sheen that faded away: but others
appeared soon after: some like dimly shining smoke, some like misty
flames flickering slowly above unseen candles; here and there they twisted
like ghostly sheets unfurled by hidden hands.
The Lord of the Rings, page 653:
"There are dead things, dead faces in
the water," he said with horror. "Dead faces!"
Gollum laughed. "The Dead Marshes, yes, yes: that is their name," he
cackled. "You should not look in when the candles are lit."
"Who are they? What are they?" asked Sam shuddering, turning to Frodo,
who was now behind him.
"I don't know," said Frodo in a dreamlike voice. "But I have seen them
too, In the pools when the candles were lit. They lie in all the pools,
pale faces, deep deep under the dark water. I saw them: grim faces and
evil, and noble faces and sad. Many faces proud and fair, and weeds
in their silver hair. But all foul, all rotting, all dead. A fell light
is in them."
Once, Minas Ithil, but was taken by Sauron and made into a place of
horror: The Lord of the Rings page 730:
Upon the further side, some way within the valley's
arms, high on a rock seat upon the black knees of the Ephel Duath, stood
the walls and tower of Minas Morgul. All was dark about it, earth and
sky, but it was lit with light. Not the imprisoned moonlight welling
through the marble walls of Minas Ithil long ago, Tower of the Moon,
fair and radiant in the hollow of the hills. Paler indeed than the moon
ailing in some slow eclipse was the light of it now, wavering and blowing
like a noissome exhalation of decay, a corpse-light, a light that illuminated
nothing. In the walls and tower windows showed, like countless black
holes looking inward into emptiness; but the topmost course of the tower
revolved slowly, first one way and then another, a huge ghostly head
leering into the night.
After the War of the Ring, Minas Morgul and Imlad Morgul were destroyed,
though the valley was not safe to live in for many years after.
The Silmarillion, Pages 62-63:
But the mountains were the Hithaeglir, the
Towers of Mist upon the borders of Eriador; yet they were taller and
more terrible in those days, and were reared by Melkor to hinder the
riding of Orome.
That was what the Misty Mountains were like in the Ages of the Stars.
Though of lesser height, they were still difficult to cross late in
the Third Age, as was discovered by Bilbo and Frodo Baggins. Frodo by
the Redhorn Pass and Bilbo and the Dwarves by the High Pass. The Company
of the Ring were forced down again by blizzards and had to attempt the
Mines of Moria. The Dwarves were forced to take shelter in a cave and
captured by Orcs. Both groups made it safely through the mountains though.
The island given as a gift to the Edain at the end of the First Age
of the Sun. It was given as a reward for their fight against Morgoth.
Numenor was nearer to the Undying Lands than to Middle-Earth. Nevertheless,
the Men of Numenor were not permitted to sail to either Tol Eressea
or the Undying Lands. Instead they became great mariners and explored
Middle-Earth. The Island of Numenor was in the form of a star with five
arms, as can be seen in the picture to the right. A clearer view is
given of the fragments of books remaining that have been gathered into
the Unfinished Tales, for there is a map of Numenor as well as several
tales surviving from the Third Age.
Near the end of the Second Age of the Sun Numenor was destroyed as told
in the Alkallabeth. Only nine ships survived this disaster and of them
came the realms of Arnor and Gondor, the realms in Exile.
Other names for Numenor include:
(the Land of Gift)
(The Downfallen. This name was only given after the Downfall, when Numenor
was no more)
The home of Finrod Felagund, Narogthrond was nigh to the river Narog
in the First age of the Sun. It was destroyed by the dragon Glaurung.
A region in Beleriand on the coast.
The first capital city of Gondor, Osgiliath was decimated in the Plague,
then the capital was moved to Minas Anor in the year 1640 of the Third
Age. Osgiliath was abandoned by the time of the War of the Ring, and
the bridge was destroyed in the year 3017-3018 as was told by Boromir
at the Council of Elrond.
The tower and city within the ring of Isengard. Orthanc was first built
by the Men of Gondor. Though the land surrounding was given to the Rohirrim,
Isengard was retained by the Stewards of Gondor. In the time of the
Steward Beren, the Keys of Orthanc were given to Saruman. At the end
of the Third Age of the Sun, Sauruman had changed Orthanc and Isegard
to a mockery of Barad-dur. Orthanc survived the attack of the Ents in
the year 3018 and was given back to the King of the Reunited Kingdom,
Aragorn. This was the site of one of the four palantiri until the year
3018 of the Third Age.
A harbour on the mouths of the Anduin river, this was the location of
the King's fleet and also subject to attacks by the Corsairs of Umbar.
The lawn where the Company of the Ring camped above the Falls of Rauros
before the Company was broken.
The Falls of Rauros are in the North-West of Gondor. Located on the
Anduin River, the Falls of Rauros are preceded by the Argonath, the
Gates of the Kings.
Also known as the Mark and the Riddermark, Rohand was formerly a part
of Gondor, known as the plains of Calhenardon. It was ceded to Eorl
by Cirion, then the Steward of Gondor. The Men of Rohan are famed horsemen
and their horses are justly famous too. At the time of the War of the
Ring, Rohan was beset on the West as well as on the East. For on the
West was Saruman, and to the East, their allies, Gondor was fighting
the Hosts of Sauron. They were victorious in the west, and arrived in
time to make a difference in the Battle of the Pelennor Fields.
The capital of Rohan was Edoras, where Kings Hall, Meduseld, was.
There were several strongholds within Rohan, including Dunharrow and
A ford to the south of the Shire.
A dangerous area of rapids in the Anduin River. Sarn Gebir was near
the Gates of Argonath and the Emyn Muil. There was a path around the
rapids surviving into the War of the Ring.
A river in Beleriand.
The Chambers of Fire, within Orodruin. This was where Sauron forged
the One Ring and at the end of the War of the Rign, the Ring was destroyed.
The southernmost area of the Shire.
Located in the North-West of Middle-Earth, this is the country of the
Hobbits. It was ceded to them by Argleb II in the year 1601 of the Third
Age of the Sun. Originally consisting of four areas that they called
Farthings, which were the Northfarthing, Westfarting, Southfarthing
and Eastfarthing. Later the area of Buckland was added to the Shire.
By the decree of King Elessar, early in the Fourth Age of the Sun, the
Westmarch, including the Tower Hills was added to the Shire. By the
decree of the King, no Men were to enter the Shire at all. Only two
battles were ever fought in the Shire: The Battle of Greenfields, fought
against orcs, in 2747 and the Battle of Bywater at the end of the War
of the Ring in 3019.
An island in the Anduin River. Its sides are so steep that no Man, Dwarf
or Elf has ever set foot on it. It is between Amon Hen and Amon Lhaw.
The Lonely Isle. A part of the Undying Lands, this island was removed
from the Circles of the World along with Aman in the Downfall of Numenor.
It can still be reached by the ships of the Elves along the Straight
The Towers of the Teeth:
Two towers built by the Men of Gondor after the War of the Last Alliance
to prevent evil from entering into Mordor again. They were taken by
Sauron and used to defend against invaders in the Morranon.
The plain within the Isenmouthe.
The northernmost realm of Harad. During the reign of the Kings of Gondor,
Umbar acknowledged the sway of Gondor. In the Second Age of the Sun,
Umbar was a haven for the Numenorean ships. The defeated rebels from
the Kinslaying in the Third Age of the Sun fled to Umbar, whence came
the Corsairs which were such a curse to Gondor until the end of the
War of the Ring.
The fleet sent to war against Sauron from Numenor conquered him at Umbar.
There was set a giant crystal in memorial. However, when Sauron returned,
this symbol of his humiliation was thrown down.
Aman and Tol Eressea, the lands of the Valar and the Lonely Isle. The
lands removed from the Circles of the World at the time of the Downfall
The Land of the Valar.
The city of the Valar, the main city of Valinor. Not all of the Valar
The western regions of Rohan.
An outpost of Arnor, there was the tower of Amon Sul until it was destroyed.
This was where Frodo, Sam, Merry, Pippin and Strider were attacked by
the Black Riders and Frodo was wounded.
One of the mountains over the Mines of Moria, also called the Silvertine
The Fellowship of the Ring
The Two Towers
The Return of the King
The Complete Guide to Middle-Earth
The Unfinished Tales
The Peoples of Middle-Earth
Not all of these are actually quoted from, though I have used all of
these conciously or unconciously in compiling this document.